14 African Countries Forced by France to Pay Colonial Tax

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[Reposted from http://www.siliconafrica.com/france-colonial-tax/]

Did you know many African countries continue to pay colonial tax to France since their independence till today!

When Sékou Touré of Guinea decided in 1958 to get out of french colonial empire, and opted for the country independence, the french colonial elite in Paris got so furious, and in a historic act of fury the french administration in Guinea destroyed everything in the country which represented what they called the benefits from french colonization.

Three thousand French left the country, taking all their property and destroying anything that which could not be moved: schools, nurseries, public administration buildings were crumbled; cars, books, medicine, research institute instruments, tractors were crushed and sabotaged; horses, cows in the farms were killed, and food in warehouses were burned or poisoned.

The purpose of this outrageous act was to send a clear message to all other colonies that the consequences for rejecting France would be very high.

Slowly fear spread trough the african elite, and none after the Guinea events ever found the courage to follow the example of Sékou Touré, whose slogan was “We prefer freedom in poverty to opulence in slavery.”

Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of the Republic of Togo, a tiny country in west Africa, found a middle ground solution with the French.He didn’t want his country to continue to be a french dominion, therefore he refused to sign the colonisation continuation pact De Gaule proposed, but agree to pay an annual debt to France for the so called benefits Togo got from french colonization.It was the only conditions for the French not to destroy the country before leaving. However, the amount estimated by France was so big that the reimbursement of the so called “colonial debt” was close to 40% of the country budget in 1963.The financial situation of the newly independent Togo was very unstable, so in order to get out the situation, Olympio decided to get out the french colonial money FCFA (the franc for french african colonies), and issue the country own currency.On January 13, 1963, three days after he started printing his country own currency, a squad of illiterate soldiers backed by France killed the first elected president of newly independent Africa. Olympio was killed by an ex French Foreign Legionnaire army sergeant called Etienne Gnassingbe who supposedly received a bounty of $612 from the local French embassy for the hit man job.Olympio’s dream was to build an independent and self-sufficient and self-reliant country. But the French didn’t like the idea.On June 30, 1962, Modiba Keita , the first president of the Republic of Mali, decided to withdraw from the  french colonial currency FCFA which was imposed on 12 newly independent African countries. For the Malian president, who was leaning more to a socialist economy, it was clear that colonisation continuation pact with France was a trap, a burden for the country development.On November 19, 1968, like, Olympio, Keita will be the victim of a coup carried out by another ex French Foreign legionnaire, the Lieutenant Moussa Traoré.

In fact during that turbulent period of African fighting to liberate themselves from European colonization, France would repeatedly use many ex Foreign legionnaires to carry out coups against elected presidents:

  • - On January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, an ex french foreign legionnaire, carried a coup against David Dacko, the first President of the Central African Republic.
  • - On January 3, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, was victim of a coup carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, an ex French legionnaire who fought with french troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence.
  • - on 26 October 1972, Mathieu Kérékou who was a security guard to President Hubert Maga, the first President of the Republic of Benin, carried a coup against the president, after he attended French military schools from 1968 to 1970.

In fact, during the last 50 years, a total of 67 coups happened in 26 countries in Africa, 16 of those countries are french ex-colonies, which means 61% of the coups happened in Francophone Africa.

Number of Coups in Africa by country

Ex French colonies  Other African countries
Country  Number of coup Country number of coup
Togo 1 Egypte 1
Tunisia 1 Libye 1
Cote d’Ivoire 1 Equatorial Guinea 1
Madagascar 1 Guinea Bissau 2
Rwanda 1 Liberia 2
Algeria 2 Nigeria 3
Congo – RDC 2 Ethiopia 3
Mali 2 Ouganda 4
Guinea Conakry 2 Soudan 5
SUB-TOTAL 1 13
Congo 3
Tchad 3
Burundi 4
Central Africa 4
Niger 4
Mauritania 4
Burkina Faso 5
Comores 5
SUB-TOTAL 2 32
TOTAL (1 + 2) 45 TOTAL 22

As these numbers demonstrate, France is quite desperate but active to keep a strong hold on his colonies what ever the cost, no matter what.

In March 2008, former French President Jacques Chirac said:

“Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power”

Chirac’s predecessor François Mitterand already prophesied in 1957 that:

 ”Without Africa, France will have no history in the 21st century”

At this very moment I’m writing this article, 14 african countries are obliged by France, trough a colonial pact, to put 85% of their foreign reserve into France central bank under French minister of Finance control. Until now, 2014, Togo and about 13 other african countries still have to pay colonial debt to France. African leaders who refuse are killed or victim of coup. Those who obey are supported and rewarded by France with lavish lifestyle while their people endure extreme poverty, and desperation.

It’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury year in year out.

We often accuse African leaders of corruption and serving western nations interests instead, but there is a clear explanation for that behavior. They behave so because they are afraid the be killed or victim of a coup. They want a powerful nation to back them in case of aggression or trouble. But, contrary to a friendly nation protection, the western protection is often offered in exchange of these leaders renouncing to serve their own people or nations’ interests.

African leaders would work in the interest of their people if they were not constantly stalked and bullied by colonial countries.

In 1958, scared about the consequence of choosing independence from France, Leopold Sédar Senghor declared: “The choice of the Senegalese people is independence; they want it to take place only in friendship with France, not in dispute.”

From then on France accepted only an “independence on paper” for his colonies, but signed binding “Cooperation Accords”, detailing the nature of their relations with France, in particular ties to France colonial currency (the Franc), France educational system, military and commercial preferences.

Below are the 11 main components of the Colonisation continuation pact since 1950s:

 

#1.  Colonial Debt for the benefits of France colonization

The newly “independent” countries  should pay for the infrastructure built by France in the country during colonization.

I still have to find out the complete details about the amounts, the evaluation of the colonial benefits and the terms of payment imposed on the african countries, but we are working on that (help us with info).

 

#2. Automatic confiscation of national reserves

The African countries should deposit their national monetary reserves into France Central bank.

France has been holding the national reserves of fourteen african countries since 1961: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

“The monetary policy governing such a diverse aggregation of countries is uncomplicated because it is, in fact, operated by the French Treasury, without reference to the central fiscal authorities of any of the WAEMU or the CEMAC. Under the terms of the agreement which set up these banks and the CFA the Central Bank of each African country is obliged to keep at least 65% of its foreign exchange reserves in an “operations account” held at the French Treasury, as well as another 20% to cover financial liabilities.

The CFA central banks also impose a cap on credit extended to each member country equivalent to 20% of that country’s public revenue in the preceding year. Even though the BEAC and the BCEAO have an overdraft facility with the French Treasury, the drawdowns on those overdraft facilities are subject to the consent of the French Treasury. The final say is that of the French Treasury which has invested the foreign reserves of the African countries in its own name on the Paris Bourse.

In short, more than 80% of the foreign reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “operations accounts” controlled by the French Treasury. The two CFA banks are African in name, but have no monetary policies of their own. The countries themselves do not know, nor are they told, how much of the pool of foreign reserves held by the French Treasury belongs to them as a group or individually.

The earnings of the investment of these funds in the French Treasury pool are supposed to be added to the pool but no accounting is given to either the banks or the countries of the details of any such changes. The limited group of high officials in the French Treasury who have knowledge of the amounts in the “operations accounts”, where these funds are invested; whether there is a profit on these investments; are prohibited from disclosing any of this information to the CFA banks or the central banks of the African states .” Wrote Dr. Gary K. Busch

It’s now estimated that France is holding close to 500 billions African countries money in its treasury, and would do anything to fight anyone who want to shed a light on this dark side of the old empire.

The African countries don’t have access to that money.

France allows them to access only 15% of the money in any given year. If they need more than that, they have to borrow the extra money from their own 65% from the French Treasury at commercial rates.

To make things more tragic, France impose a cap on the amount of money the countries could borrow from the reserve. The cap is fixed at 20% of their public revenue in the preceding year. If the countries need to borrow more than 20% of their own money, France has a veto.

Former French President Jacques Chirac recently spoke about the African nations money in France banks. Here is a video of  him speaking about the french exploitation scheme. He is speaking in French, but here is a short excerpt transcript: “We have to be honest, and acknowledge that a big part of the money in our banks come precisely from the exploitation of the African continent.”

#3.  Right of first refusal on any raw or natural resource discovered in the country

France has the first right to buy any natural resources found in the land of its ex-colonies. It’s only after France would say, “I’m not interested”, that the African countries are allowed to seek other partners.

 

#4. Priority to French interests and companies in public procurement and public biding

In the award of government contracts, French companies must be considered first, and only after that these countries  could look elsewhere. It doesn’t matter if the african countries can obtain better value for money elsewhere.

As consequence, in many of the french ex-colonies, all the majors economical assets of the countries are in the hand of french expatriates. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, french companies own and control all the major utilities – water, electricity, telephone, transport, ports and major banks. The same in commerce, construction, and agriculture.

In the end, as I’ve written in a previous article, Africans now Live On A Continent Owned by Europeans!

 

#5. Exclusive right to supply military equipment and Train the country military officers

Through a sophisticated scheme of scholarships, grants, and “Defense Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, the africans should send their senior military officers for training in France or French ran-training facilities.

The situation on the continent now is that France has trained hundreds, even thousands of traitors and nourish them. They are dormant when they are not needed, and activated when needed for a coup or any other purpose!

 

#6. Right for France to pre-deploy troops and  intervene military in the country to defend its interests

Under something called “Defence Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, France had the legal right to intervene militarily in the African countries, and also to station troops permanently in bases and military facilities in those
countries, run entirely by the French.

French military bases in Africa

French-military-bases-in-africa

When President Laurent Gbagbo of Côte d’Ivoire tried to end the French exploitation of the country, France organized a coup. During the long process to oust Gbagbo, France tanks, helicopter gunships and Special Forces intervened directly in the conflit, fired on civilians and killed many.

To add insult to injury, France estimated that the French business community had lost several millions of dollars when in the rush to leave Abidjan in 2006 the French Army massacred 65 unarmed civilians and wounded 1,200 others.

After France succeeded the coup, and transferred power to Alassane Outtara, France requested Ouattara government to pay compensation to French business community for the losses during the civil war.

Indeed the Ouattara government paid them twice what they said they had lost in leaving.

 

#7. Obligation to make French the official language of the country and the language for education

Oui, Monsieur. Vous devez parlez français, la langue de Molière!

A French language and culture dissemination organization has been created called “Francophonie” with several satellites and affiliates organizations supervised by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs.

As demonstrated in this article, if French is the only language you speak, you’d have access to less than 4% of humanity knowledge and ideas. That’s very limiting.

 

#8. Obligation to use France colonial money FCFA

That’s the real milk cow for France, but it’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury.

During the introduction of Euro currency in Europe, other european countries discovered the french exploitation  scheme. Many, specially the nordic countries, were appalled and suggested France get rid of the system, but unsuccessfully.

 

#9.  Obligation to send France annual balance and reserve report.

Without the report, no money.

Anyway the secretary of the Central banks of the ex-colonies, and the secretary of the bi-annual meeting of the Ministers of Finance of the ex-colonies is carried out by France Central bank / Treasury.

 

#10. Renonciation to enter into military alliance with any other country unless authorized by France

African countries in general are the ones with will less regional military alliances. Most of the countries have only military alliances with their ex-colonisers! (funny, but you can’t do better!).

In the case France ex-colonies, France forbid them to seek other military alliance except the one it offered them.

 

#11. Obligation to ally with France in situation of war or global crisis

Over one million africans soldiers fought for the defeat of nazism and fascism during the second world war.

Their contribution is often ignored or minimized, but when you think that it took only 6 weeks for Germany to defeat France in 1940, France knows that Africans could be useful for fighting for la “Grandeur de la France” in the future.

There is something almost psychopathic in the relation of France with Africa.

First,  France is severely addicted to looting and exploitation of Africa  since the time of slavery. Then there is this complete lack of creativity and imagination of french elite to think beyond the past and tradition.

Finally, France has 2 institutions which are completely frozen into the past, inhabited by paranoid and psychopath “haut fonctionnaires” who spread fear of apocalypse if France would change, and whose ideological reference still comes from the 19th century romanticism: they are the Minister of Finance and Budget of France and the Minister of Foreign affairs of France.

These 2 institutions are not only a threat to Africa, but to the French themselves.

It’s up to us as African to free ourselves, without asking for permission, because I still can’t understand for example how 450 french soldiers in Côte d’Ivoire could control a population of 20 millions people!? 

People first reaction when they learn about the french colonial tax is often a question: “Until when?”

For historical comparison, France made Haiti to pay the modern equivalent of $21 billion from 1804 till 1947 (almost one century and half) for the losses caused to french slave traders by the abolition of slavery and the liberation of the Haitian slaves.

African countries are paying the colonial tax only for the last 50 years, so I think one century of payment might be left!

MORE…

http://www.afrika.no/Detailed/24741.html

  43 comments for “14 African Countries Forced by France to Pay Colonial Tax

  1. February 2, 2014 at 9:30 pm

    Such a pity that these foolish slave masters cannot get enough of Africa. They keep troubling our people just to acquire resources from us. SHAME ON YOU SLAVE MASTERS.

  2. Cilas
    February 5, 2014 at 5:20 pm

    It is a stupid and non objective paper

    • February 5, 2014 at 6:12 pm

      And how would you make it more “objective?” – by saying that the sh*tty French language and currency and smell left behind is worth the price these African nations pay? There is NO excuse for the horrible behavior of any European nation toward Africa and Africans.

      • Idk
        February 8, 2014 at 2:33 pm

        Haha! Xavier, you also seem to be so objective when you talk like this ;)
        The paper in itself criticize an important aspect I agree, but it’s true that it seriously lack rigor and facts. So many wrong/mistated things in this paper.
        I won’t comment everything, but to give one example:
        “As these numbers demonstrate, France is quite desperate but active to keep a strong hold on his colonies what ever the cost, no matter what.”
        c.f. the table.
        This is sophistic mathematics. It’s just because France had a LOT of colonies in Africa. So yeah, with more countries, you have more coups… What is the correlation with France there ?? Seriously show it to me ;)

    • Edda Mercy
      February 6, 2014 at 10:34 am

      Pitying you. Bring your non stupid one. I am very sorry for your blindness. Unless you are one of them full if hypocrisy killing the Continent.

    • Fezeka Mabona
      February 27, 2014 at 6:03 pm

      Cilas, why are affected by the paper? Are you French? If you are, keep quiet and be ashamed of the contents of this paper.

    • frank
      March 1, 2014 at 3:59 pm

      it was a little bit over the top and exaggerated at times but there are hard facts behind it.

    • No
      March 2, 2014 at 5:11 pm

      Anytime someone says things like this, without any counterargument, it’s usually because they wanted to see intellectual masturbation to even consider at least somewhat subjective. I absolutely, unequivocally, and with utmost passion HATE individuals who are so addicted to fancy words and can’t take a stripped-down truth for what it is: the truth. Academia teaches but than at some point turns people into complex dummies who can’t understand common sense.

  3. Melo
    February 5, 2014 at 10:36 pm

    Good article! Africa will be free from this evil system.

  4. GB
    February 6, 2014 at 1:24 am

    This is crazy !!! my goodness !!!!

  5. Joy
    February 6, 2014 at 5:55 am

    France their lives never get better than any of those Africans….. Europeans are eating from the hand of Africans…. when the road close, then they will know for sure that African is blessed and adorable continent. french has somany limiting words than other language. l pray that one day God will arise David to kill goliat in Africa general. British hold Nigeria captive even until now. may God help Africans.

    • bukibassey@yahoo.com
      February 27, 2014 at 2:32 pm

      This is the ugliest of human nature on display. Even Hitler decided Africa would be the world’s farm when his country takes over the world. Indeed all the western powers come to Africa to reap.

  6. unbwogable Kenyan
    February 6, 2014 at 10:23 am

    pathetic..so this fallacy called developed nation is actually fed by Africa…get rid of this non-sense Africa

  7. Remy Fernandez
    February 6, 2014 at 7:12 pm

    This was a rather painful piece to read for two reasons. First, the greed and selfishness of Europeans to demand what is not their own. Second, the cowardice of African leaders to accept from those thieves, such heinous terms and conditions . Oh! for African leaders like Robert Mugabe the greatest African of this century. Africa do not need Europe.

    • Lerato
      February 27, 2014 at 6:12 pm

      if all African leaders were like Mugabe.

    • Miss
      March 2, 2014 at 5:15 pm

      Don’t forget Isayas Aferwerki who said this long before. Self-reliance by all means! Not compromised “independence”.

      • Gebriel
        March 3, 2014 at 5:58 pm

        Mugabe and Afwerki put money in their own pockets while slaughtering their own people. No elections, forced military service for years and an increase of people fleeing the countries. Do not believe them to be anything but horrible human beings

        • Miss
          April 16, 2014 at 4:43 am

          I should have predicted the usual responses; the good ol’ “dictator” card when real discussion of development occurs. Claiming that Aferwerki’s govn’t stole money and Mugabe’s govn’t stole money without any proof or guidance in thought is useless talk. Both presidents have room for improvement, but when everyone finds it fashionable to scream “dictator dictator” and come up with random accusations as one sees fit without providing viable solution got economic stability of the country (which would prevent the migration in the first place), who can take one seriously?

          SELF-reliance is the way for Africa, and anyone who immediately acts like that’s correlated to dictatorship needs to be more open-minded and less short-sighted.

  8. Antoinette
    February 7, 2014 at 7:06 am

    I belong to huge Ivorian communaute I am going to educate them about what French peoples are doing to our beautiful country ….this need to stop

    • Kofi Ghana
      March 1, 2014 at 9:00 pm

      Antoinette! I agree with you. This is eye opening article. Go your way and preach this until these greedy bastards are eliminated from Africa. God bless you God bless Africa.

  9. frank
    February 21, 2014 at 1:39 am

    All those countries should come together as a solid block stop paying France immediately and tell France to fuck off.

  10. Tsepo Matlho
    February 27, 2014 at 11:03 am

    I am speechless know word certain African countries does not want to go away with French language, I ask my friend who is from Ivory Coast why are they still using french as their main language he could not answer me

    • ray Mogotlo
      February 28, 2014 at 8:23 am

      even in South Africa we still use English as our first language, will we ever be free

    • Kay-gee
      March 11, 2014 at 2:05 pm

      Tsepo, its probably the same reason you not writing in tswana.

  11. Poneso Molale
    February 27, 2014 at 11:27 am

    Mental slavery is the most effective of enslavement so as much as Ivory coast people are 20million in number they can’t see any way out between 450Soldiers, freedom is not that far but the Mind! Its Terrible what happening to us as Africans we really didn’t deserve this from the beginning of time itself. Something should be done

  12. jcostner27@gmail.com
    February 27, 2014 at 12:15 pm

    My eyes drop tears after reading this article. I think Africans should stand up against these types of modern slavery. How on earth do you make people pay for something that belongs to them?! I call this 419 at it best!! THESE GUYS ARE THIEVES!!!!!

  13. Phephisa
    February 27, 2014 at 12:40 pm

    I am an African. Africa for is for African.

  14. Mandla Sithebe
    February 27, 2014 at 12:45 pm

    I like this site go ahead with it.

  15. Mzamani Trevor Mathebula
    February 27, 2014 at 2:25 pm

    Eish this is realy disturbing indeed,i knew nothing about the French involvement in our beloved Africa,they’re realy torning our continent apart,i always got questions of why all these african states which were colonised by French filled by terror,suffering & wars?Eish this is realy disturbing indeed,i knew nothing about the French involvement in our beloved Africa,they’re realy torning our continent apart,i always got questions of why all these african states which were colonised by French filled by terror,suffering & wars?Eish this is realy disturbing indeed,i knew nothing about the French involvement in our beloved Africa,they’re realy torning our continent apart,i always got questions of why all these african states which were colonised by French filled by terror,suffering & wars?

  16. Dingalomzi mhlauli
    February 27, 2014 at 4:52 pm

    This.. really makes me sick into my stomach and its disturbing indeed. That is why i also believe that we African countries were never granted independency from the word go including our country #SA#. Its like someone who took something from you and when being given back your belongings you find out that they are not complete..again just like us #SA#.. We can claim we’v got independency but our land is’nt ours #referring into mines and land in general#..this is really annoying hey.. I’m wondering if when we #African Countries# will stand up and reclaim our Continent…

  17. imbayemabwe
    February 27, 2014 at 4:59 pm

    Wade the former Senegalise president was told by Mugabe to stop this madness when he visited Harare. I remember reading a similar article in the New African Magazine. The main problem is us or some of among us. Our greediness allows us to be used by someone from Europe to destroy our own.

  18. keabetswe Molete
    February 27, 2014 at 6:12 pm

    Why isn’t the AU doing something about this serious matter?!! Why aren’t the great minds of Africa negotiating to make France leave our land alone?! France need us more than we need them! Our people are suffering because of people who think they are superior! What the hell they did they bring to Africa that makes them think that they own a piece of it!!! I wish I had the power to kick them out!

  19. Mathew
    February 27, 2014 at 7:37 pm

    Africa Stand up and Resist such nonsence…Lets harambee!!!

  20. Bernadette
    February 28, 2014 at 5:16 am

    Who asked them to come and colonize. They should be let to slide to that third world power country which is what they deserve.

  21. mpho thakadu
    February 28, 2014 at 6:36 am

    This well schoolarly and articulative article is an eye openner to us african.It is high time for us to combat all the elements of the imperialism and its nature at all cost for our children sake.We should work tirelessly to capacitate the regional bodies like African union to fight this abusive tactics by our former foreign oppressers.

  22. February 28, 2014 at 10:48 am

    hmmm

  23. February 28, 2014 at 6:02 pm

    This is so absurd to say the least. If these French and the whites as whole think they are so “super” why can’t they make it on their own like the Chinese? It’s unbelievable to even imagine that these people are sitting pretty pretending to be all that when they know very well that they are lavishing on the rots of African copses.

  24. Paula
    February 28, 2014 at 6:34 pm

    Haiti’s story is not very different. Check out this article by Barbadian Historian Professor Hilary Beckles at
    http://www.barbadosadvocate.com/newsitem.asp?more=letters&NewsID=8490

  25. abdullahiedward@yahoo.com
    March 2, 2014 at 8:51 am

    These “taxes” and “payments for infrastructural development” are totally illegal on the basis that they were necessitated by the need to exploit the resources of the various African country, not to “develop” them. Hence, the cost should be borne by the developer who reaped the benefits of the resources they exploited, and not by the country from which these resources were extracted. An example:- in Nigeria, and I am sure it applies to other African countries as well, the right of way for the railway is from north to south. Any train heading up north on the single existing line has to give way to any train coming south. If colonialism was a “developmental” process then the right of way would be reversed. As it is the way it is – and it still is – the right of way was obviously established in a manner giving priority to extracting resources from the north of Nigeria to the south and the port at Lagos, for exportation to the “mother country” England who, in turn, processed the materials received and sent them back to the colonies in the form of finished products which were then “imported” into the colony under preferential trade tariffs. Ipso facto colonialism was exploitative and not developmental hence no taxes or “developmental levies” are due to the colonializer.

  26. Yolande M. AGBLE
    March 3, 2014 at 7:50 pm

    I am mailing this eyeopening article to all my progressive thinking friends of ALL nationalities. I also wish it could be sent to some of the political bigots in this country whose blind ignorance would prevent them from ever seeing ‘AFRICA’ as anything but poverty stricken and backward because of its own corrupt governments. The continued exploitation of these countries, whose people’s eyes I agree should by now have been opened, eludes them completely. This is why I shall always have respect for leaders like Nkrumah, Sekou Tore, Olympio. Netto, Gadaffi, Chavez and others who stand up for their people against enormous odds.

  27. SP
    March 8, 2014 at 12:48 am

    Informative, but there should be proper sourcing and references for your information.

  28. karanja
    March 15, 2014 at 1:20 pm

    The african union should renegotiate this colonial tax on behalf of the African countries caught up in this colonial protection tax scheme, plus it should stand up for African countries that are bullied by former colonial masters by offering moral military and diplomatic support just in case France cannot fight the whole continent

Comments are closed.